The [dis]position of Albanian Adobe Constructions
Author: Etleva Dobjani, Doriana Papa
Affiliation: Polis University
In traditional societies, building construction was related with local materials available in situ. In Albania, traditional architecture is especially built with adobe in the lowest areas, especially near the coast and with stone especially in the mountains. The scarce resources of stone near the coast and the facility to build with mud bricks, has made possible its implementation both in urban and rural dwellings. The greatest number of adobe constructions belongs to the Ottoman period and lasted until the first decades of nineties. This paper focuses in analyzing the design principles and the constructional elements of the traditional earthen architecture in Albania. Through the documentation and study of the local traditional adobe construction systems, it would be more interesting to understand its potential use today. This paper’s analyses are based on large-scale in-situ research made with students in the framework of the restorations course at Polis university, which includes field survey, archival research, detailed photographic recording of the remaining traditional buildings mainly in central Albania and literature review of the main causes of deterioration of adobe structures. Analysis of spatial distribution of housing typologies, basic structural elements, and different construction systems influenced by the geographical position highlight specific earth architecture techniques used in different traditional building typology. Based on the collected data and critical analyses, this paper will provide some useful suggestions concerning the typology, form, and the construction techniques of traditional earth buildings, and it will guide us in finding some techniques currently used for the restoration and preservation of traditional adobe buildings and the use of new earth buildings construction in particular locations.
Achenza, M., Sanna, U., a cura di (2006). I manuali del recupero dei centri storici della Sardegna. Il manuale tematico della terra cruda, ITACA, Sardegnia, Sassari, fq, 31. Pdf online in http://www.sardegnadigitallibrary.it/mmt/fullsize/2009022319494200003.pdf
Bushati, V., (2012) Vilat e Tiranes, Botime afrojdit, Tirane
Hall, M., Lindsay, R., Krayenhof, M., (2012) Modern earth buildings. Materials, engineering, constructions and applications, Woodhead Publishing
Minke, G., (2006) Building with Earth. Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture, Basel: Birkhäuser
Muka, A., (2001) Banesa fshatare dhe familja e madhe. Tirane: Akademia e Shkancave
Muka, A., (2007) Ndërtimet tradicionale fshatare. Tirane: Akademia e Shkancave.
Oliver, P. (Ed.). 1998. Encyclopedia of vernacular architecture of the world. Vol. 2, Cultures and habitats. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L. & McMahon, T. A. 2007. Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classifcation. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 4 (2), 439–473.
Philokyprou, M., Michael, A., Malaktou, E. & Savvides, A. 2017. Environmentally responsive design in Eastern Mediterranean. The case of vernacular architecture in the coastal, lowland and mountainous regions of Cyprus. Building and Environment, 111, 91–109.
Riza, E., (2009) Qyteti dhe banesa qytetare shqiptare shek XVXIX, Tirane, Tiranë : Botimet "Dita 2000" Schroeder, H. (2015) Sustainable Building with Earth, Springer International Publishing
Sukaj, I., (1998) Urbanistika dhe arkitektura e qytetit te Kavajes, veshtrim i zhvillimit historik, Tirane
Supic, P. 1982. Vernacular architecture: A lesson of the past for the future. Energy and Buildings, 5 (1), 43–54. Turan, M. (Ed.) 1990. Vernacular architecture: paradigms of environmental response. Aldershot: Avebury.