The influence of climate change on drought occurrences and the measures taken to alleviate drought in Albania. Sherif LUSHAJ, Anira GJONI, Enkelejda KUCAJ,

The influence of climate change on drought occurrences and the measures taken to alleviate drought in Albania. Sherif LUSHAJ, Anira GJONI, Enkelejda KUCAJ,

150 150 Sadmira Malaj
DOI: 10.37199/c41000123

Prof. Dr. Sherif LUSHAJ1,
Anira GJONI2,
Enkelejda KUCAJ2
1POLIS University, Albania
2Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania

Drought is an extreme weather condition marked by prolonged periods of no precipitation and dry weather. It affects the hydrological balance, soil moisture, temperature, water supply, and river flow rates. Land degradation, biodiversity loss, and significant economic sectors are negatively impacted. Despite its small size, Albania is distinguished by its separation into 13 subzones and 4 phytoclimatic zones, which exhibit noticeable variances in terms of climate indicators and ex- treme weather occurrences. The seasonality of the yearly rainfall, which falls 80% of the time between October and April, the dry summer, and human activities that harm the environment are further factors contributing to drought in Albania. Albania is one of the nations whose dry and semi-arid regions, which make up around two-thirds of its surface, are experiencing drought and the desertification process. Even on a worldwide scale, nearly one-third of the land is degrading. When compared to the 30-year average, meteorological data from Albania suggest that climate change, the phenomenon of drought, and land desertification are increasing. Therefore, in 2020, the amount of precipitation was 14.4% less at 10 meteorological stations around the nation, and the average maximum temperatures increased by +2.8°C, over the multi-year average of 1961–1990. As a result of the escalation and disastrous effects of drought, climate change is considered a “hot” topic that has attracted the attention of governments, institutions worldwide, and international organizations. This will be done through an in-depth analysis of indicators and indices of climate, hydrological and meteorological drought, exposed economic sectors, and land. Additionally, the key findings of the reduction of environmental, ecological, and agricultural drought, adaptation to climate change in relation to drought protection for the soil, and in particular for agricultural land, will be highlighted.

Publisher: Polis_press


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