Linear infrastructure assets as a territorial system for flood disturbances control LORENZO TINTI
Author: Lorenzo Tinti
Affiliation: Ferrara University
Flooding is a cyclical environmental disturbance with implications on ecosystems structure and physical environment (White and Pickett, 1985). Risk management is an increasingly pressing issue within spatial planning that is perhaps the most effective approach to preventing the increase in flood risk through active controls on territorial transformations (Sayers et al., 2013; Meng et al., 2020). At the same time, the development of linear infrastructures is essential to ensure adequate accessibility to services, goods and facilities (Srinivasu and Rao, 2013). Since infrastructure works are territorial-scale interventions with a considerable potential on shaping spatial forms (Strang, 1996) and on directing environmental processes, including alterations on surface hydrology (Raiter et al., 2018) the integrated exploitation of these two implications would allow a widespread territorial intervention able to implement resilience against flood. As linear infrastructures developments are complex works in complex environments (Di Giulio, Emanueli, Lobosco, 2018) there is considerable uncertainty about timing and economic feasibility that arise from the management of public/private interests, the multiplicity of issues involved and the management of huge financial budgets. The aim of this contribution is to discern the limitations and potentials of a multidisciplinary strategy by following a 'research-by-design' approach for the development of a rail transport infrastructure in the Lezhë district in Albania with a specific focus on the integration of flood risk reduction design within infrastructure track layout planning. Through a radical rethinking of territories, this work increases territorial resilience and propose new hybrid ecosystems, making them simultaneously devoted both to functionalist engineering and ecological renovation.
Bélanger, P. (2013) Landscape Infrastructure - Urbanism beyond Engineering. PhD. Wageningen Universiteit en Research centrum (WUR).
Bélanger, P. (2013) The new geographic landscape. PhD.Ph.Landscape Architecture Frontiers, 1(1), 42- 54.
Brochier, F. and Ramieri, E. (2001) Climate Change Impacts on the Mediterranean Coastal Zones. Available at SSRN. http:/dx.doi.org/10.2139/ ssrn.277549
Carisi, F., Samela, C., Domeneghetti, A., Iacobini, F., Zammuto, A., Castellarin, A. and Brath, A. (2019) A simplified methodological framework for the assessment and management of flood hazard associates with extended linear infrastructure (railways). In: EGU General Assembly 2019, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 21, EGU2019-17870. Available from 10.13140/ RG.2.2.32338.61127 [accessed 22 March 2022].
Di Giulio, R., Emanueli, L., Lobosco, G. (2018) Scenario’s evaluation by design. A ‘’scenarios approach’’ to resilience. Techne - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment, 15, 92-100. https:/doi.org/10.13128/Techne-22118 Deming, M. E. and, Swaffield, S. (2011) Landscape
Architecture Research: Inquiry, Strategy, Design. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Doyle, M.W. and Havlick, D.G. (2009) Infrastructure and the Environment. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 34(1), 349-373. https:/doi. org/10.1146/annurev.environ.022108.180216 Frasheri, A. and Pano, N. (2003)
Impact of climate change on Adriatic Sea hydrology. Elsevier Oceanography Series, 69, 92-96. https:/doi. org/10.1016/S0422-9894(03)80015-6
Giovinazzi, O. and Giovinazzi, G. (2010) Segni nel paesaggio. Re-interpretare le infrastrutture lineari. TeMA-Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 3(4), 83-94. https:/doi. org/10.6092/1970-9870/208
McGarical, K. (2006) Landscape Pattern Metrics. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. https:/doi. org/10.1002/9780470057339.val006.pub2
Meng, M., Dabrowski, M. and, Stead, D. (2020) Enhancing Flood Resilience and Climate Adaptation: The State of the Art and New Directions for Spatial Planning. Sustainability, 12(19), 1-23. https:/doi. org/10.3390/su12197864
Merz, B., Hall, J., Disse, M. and Schumann, A. (2010) Fluvial flood risk management in changing world. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 10, 509- 527. https:/doi.org/10.5194/nhess-10-509-2010 Michener, W. K. and, Haeuber, R. A. (1998) Flooding: Natural and Managed Disturbances. BioScience, 48(9), 677-680. https:/doi.org/10.2307/1313330 Milly, P. C. D., Wetherald, R. T., Dunne, K. A., and Delworth, T. L. (2002) Increasing risk of great floods in a changing climate. Nature, 415(6871), 514-517. https:/doi.org/10.1038/415514a
Morel, P. (2022) De la prévention du danger à la gestion du risque. Tracés.
Kundzewicz, Z.W., Kanae, S., Seneviratne, S.I., Handmer, J., Nicholls, N., Peduzzi, P., Mechler, R., Bouwer, L.M., Arnell, Mach, N.K., Muir-Wood, R., Brakenridge, G.R., Kron, W., Benito, G., Honda, Y., Takahashi, K. and Sherstyukov, B. (2014) Flood risk and climate change: global and regional perspectives. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59(1), 1-28. https:/doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2013.85 7411
Liao, K.H. (2012) A Theory on Urban Resilience to Floods—A Basis for Alternative Planning Practices. Ecology and Society, 17(4). http:/dx.doi. org/10.5751/ES-05231-170448
Lobosco, G. (2019) Scenario thinking in landscape architecture education. ECLAS and UNISCAPE Annual Conference proceedings, 21-23.
Gellert, P. K., Lynch, B. D. (2004) Mega-project as displacements*. International Social Science Journal, 175, 15-25. https:/doi.org/10.1111/1468- 2451.5501002
Pojani, E. and Tola, M. (2010). The effect of climate change on the water sector with a case study of Albania: An economic perspective. Proceedings of the BALWOIS.
Raiter, P. K., Lynch, B. D. (2018) Linear infrastructure impacts on landscape hydrology. Journal of Environmental Management, 206, 446-457. https:/doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.10.036 Rossano, F. (2015)
From absolute protection to controlled disaster: New perspectives on flood management in times of climate change. Journal of Landscape Architecture, 10(1), 16-25. http:/dx.doi. org/10.1080/18626033.2015.1011420
Sayers, P., Li, Y., Galloway, G., Penning-Rowsell, E., Shen, F., Wen, K., Chen, Y. and Le Quesne, T. (2013) Flood Risk Management: A Strategic Approach. Paris: UNESCO.
Srinivasu, B. and Rao, P.S. (2013). Infrastructure development and economic growth: Prospects and perspective. Journal of business management and Social sciences research, 2(1), 81-91.
Steiner, F. (2000) The Living Landscape: An Ecological Approach to Landscape Planning. McGraw-Hill.
Sousa, P., Gomes, D. and Formigo, N. (2020) Ecosystem services in environmental impact assessment. Energy Reports, 6, 466-471. https:/doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2019.09.009
Ugolini, M., Varvaro, S., Ripamonti, F. and Gallizioli, C. (2020) Building landscape. A new road infrastructure is an occasion for a multidisciplinary approach to a landscape project. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 960(3) IOP Publishing. https:/doi.org/10.1088/1757- 899X/960/3/032103
Viazovska, A. (2016). Dimensions of Landscape through the Lens of Landscape Infrastructure Practice. ZARCH, 7, 1-10. https:/doi.org/10.26754/ojs_zarch/zarch.201671529
Werritty, A. (2006) Sustainable flood management: oxymoron or new paradigm? A? a, 38(1), 16-23. https:/doi.org/10.1111/j.1475- 4762.2006.00658.x
White, P.S., Pickett, S.T.A. (1985) Natural disturbance and patch dynamics: An introduction. In Pickett, S.T.A. and White P.S. (Eds.) The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics (pp. 3-13). San Diego: Academic Press.
Fig. 1 Valli Grandi Veronesi (Source: Archivio Luigi Ghirri, 1989)
Fig. 2 Lezhë actual conditions and risk scenario (Source: Author, 2021)
Fig. 3 Lezhë linear infrastructure system analysis (Source: Author, 2021)
Fig. 4 Lezhë infrastructure and landscape design integration (Source: Author, 2021)